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* GettelmanA_JGR_2005a [#w586828d]
Gettelman, A. and C.R. Webster, Simulations of water isotope abundances in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and implications for stratosphere troposphere exchange, JGR, 110, D17301, doi:10.1029/2004JD004812, 2005.

- Category: Upperair Isotopes
- Tool(s): Observation, Trajectory
- Summary: Incorporated stable water isotopes into his back trajectory model, and compared with CRYSTAL-FACE observations (and old ATMOS data). 
- Read Date: 2006-08-06

** Messages [#z0ae81ec]
- Incorporated stable water isotopes into his back trajectory model, and compared with CRYSTAL-FACE observations (and old ATMOS data). 
- Only TTL (Tropical Topopause Layer) is considered. (O3, CO, and CH4 were used for region-extraction)
- 対流圏での鉛直運動は、動的分別の効果はほとんどなく、Rayleigh的な表現で十分。しかし、運動による混合とかを正確に見積もらなければいけない。
- 境界面以降、cirrus cloudの中などでは、非常に大きな過飽和(160%)時にdehydrationするため、動的分別(相対的に18Oの分別が大きくなる)の効果が大きくなる。
** Details [#f8490b0b]
- Isotope Model
-- When >cRH(=110%), vapor turns to ice with non-equilibrium fractionation. (液体のときは平衡と記載されているが、レアなようだ。)
-- When <RH=100%, ice and liquid turn to vapor.
-- ice evaporation: "a last-in, first-out"→氷の表面についたものが蒸発する、というイメージ。
- Initial Condition
-- 対流圏内:地表面からのRayleigh Curve。
-- 成層圏内:一定値(-650‰ for D, -180‰ for 18O)
- Back trajectory model
-- ECMWFを外力としているようだ。再現性はそこそこ。
-- 水平±0.5度、鉛直±1kmの27点を出発点としている。
** Question [#vbdc58eb]
- Back trajectory model の詳細。([[Gettleman et al., 2002>study/GettelmanA_GRL_2002a]])
-- 原典では、1度間隔で熱帯域を網羅。この論文では、以下のプロセス。
+ 1分おきの観測点を中心に水平0.5度、上下1kmの点を設置。
+ 10日間のBack Trajectoryを6時間間隔ECMWFデータから計算。
+ そのTrajectoryからForwardで同位体比を計算。Initialは対流圏では高さの関数、成層圏は一定。(水も同位体も)
+ 1分間隔の飛行機観測点について、27個ずつの推定値が得られる。(1分ごとに全てのTrajectoryは異なる。例えば60分のフライトで、60x27の1620のTrajectoryが得られる。)

- Supersaturationのモデルの詳細。(Jouzel and Merlivat, 1984)
* Memo [#m104dab0]

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